Dhaka is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District and Dhaka Division. Dhaka is one of world's most populated cities, which in combination with localities forming the wider metropolitan area, is home to over 15 million as of 2013. The population is growing by an estimated 4.2% per year, one of the highest rates amongst the Asian cities. According to the Far Eastern Economic Review, Dhaka will be home to 25 million people by the end of 2025. Dhaka is located in central Bangladesh on the eastern banks of the Buriganga River. The city lies on the lower reaches of the Ganges Delta and covers a total area of 300 square kilometres (120 sq mi). The city's name was Jahangir Nagar (City of Jahangir) in the 17th century. It was the Mughal capital of Bengal for 75 years; and flourished in trade and culture as a cosmopolitan commercial capital and the hub of the worldwide muslin and silk trade. In 1793, Dhaka was ceded to the British East India Company. British Dacca developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the establishment of railways, jute trading and various educational and cultural institutions. It was the capital of British Eastern Bengal and Assam between 1905 and 1912. After the Partition of British India in 1947, Dhaka became the administrative capital of East Pakistan. The post-independence period witnessed rapid growth as Dhaka attracted migrant workers from across rural Bangladesh. In the 1990s and 2000s, Dhaka saw improved economic growth and the emergence of affluent business districts and satellite towns. It was the capital of British Eastern Bengal and Assam between 1905 and 1912. After the Partition of British India in 1947, Dhaka became the administrative capital of East Pakistan. The post-independence period witnessed rapid growth as Dhaka attracted migrant workers from across rural Bangladesh. In the 1990s and 2000s, Dhaka saw improved economic growth and the emergence of affluent business districts and satellite towns. Modern Dhaka is one of Bangladesh's twin economic centers, along with Chittagong, to which it is connected by the Grand Trunk Road and the Bangladesh Railway. The city was the 2012 ISESCO Asian Capital of Culture. It is served by Shahjalal International Airport. For much of recent history, Dhaka was characterized by roadside markets and small shops that sold a wide variety of goods. Recent years have seen the widespread construction of shopping malls, multiplexes, hotels and restaurants attracting Dhaka's growing middle class and wealthy residents. As the most densely populated and one of the fastest growing megacities in the world, it faces many challenges common to a developing world metropolis, including traffic congestion, crime, urban pollution and poverty. Recent years have seen the widespread construction of shopping malls, multiplexes, hotels and restaurants attracting Dhaka's growing middle class and wealthy residents. As the most densely populated and one of the fastest growing megacities in the world, it faces many challenges common to a developing world metropolis, including traffic congestion, crime, urban pollution and poverty. Download Complete Report of Dhaka from Here.
Safetipin has been conducting audits to assess the safety of the city of Delhi since August 2013. This report is based on the safety audits done from June 2015 for 17 metro stations of the Yellow Line of the Delhi Metro. These stations were selected on the basis of their footfall and further connectivity options. The study reveals the shortfalls of the public transportation system of Delhi and suggests recommendations to better integrate the Metro with other modes of travel. The audits were carried out using the SafetiPin App. SafetiPin, is a map-based mobile phone application, which works to make communities and cities safer by providing safetyrelated information collected by users and by trained auditors. At the core of the app is the Women’s Safety Audit. A Women’s Safety Audit (WSA) is a participatory tool for collecting and assessing information about perceptions of urban safety in public spaces. The audit is based on nine parameters – Lighting, Openness, Visibility, Crowd, Security, Walkpath, Availability of Public Transport, Gender Usage of Public Spaces and Feeling. An area of approximately 500m radius around each metro station has been studied to assess the safety and improve the last mile connectivity for the passengers, focusing on female commuters. The audits were done in the evening hours of 5pm-10pm for the 17 metro stations, to evaluate the level of safety and identify ways to improve it. RECOMMENDATIONS • Integrated Para-transit. Stands for Autos/cycle rickshaw need to be created at regular intervals for people to be able to reach the metro stations comfortably. The location needs to be decided on the basis of entry/exits of Office/ Residential Societies, Markets etc. The Bus connectivity to the areas along the Metro needs to be improved, ensuring proper Bus Stops along the routes they ply on. Auto Stands should be located along these. A bicycle-rental system can be introduced atleast for an area of 1-2km radius around the metro station. Also, convenience facilities like Public Toilets, Drinking Water etc. need to be provided with these Stands. • Create Zones for Hawkers. The edge of the metro stations particularly the entry/exit points have many vendors selling snacks/tea etc. However, as one moves away the area starts to get secluded. Creating Hawker’s Zones along the most preferred route will assist in meeting one’s daily needs too. • Create Active Interfaces. The buildings along the main road currently have boundary walls. These need to be taken down. The plot edge can be defined even while creating an active interface with the Footpaths. This will increase the visibility and make the pedestrians feel safe. • Increase Lighting Levels. Lighting has been rated Average in most parts. However, there is a need to have the area brightly lit. Currently, the street lights are located on the central median only along many roads. Also, regular pruning of trees is veryimportant as these obstruct light. • Proper Footpaths. Walk paths have been rated Above Average in most areas. However, they need to be maintained well. Also, it is important to check their elevation from the road level. In many areas, while the footpaths are properly paved, they are being used for vehicular parking forcing people to walk on the vehicular carriageway. Designated Parking Zones need to be established to prevent this. • Increase Police Patrolling. The main roads are well covered by the PCR Vans/Bikes. However, the routes that are preferred by pedestrians (usually the shortest routes) also need to have police patrolling or CCTV surveillance. • Parking Zones within Station Premises. The Parking Area within the Metro Station premises also needs to be looked at in detail to ensure space is brightly lit throughout and Visibility is high. These spaces are currently ideal spots violence against women. Download Full Report in PDF Click Here
INTRODUCTION Safety Audits were conducted by INTACH and SafetiPin in Delhi’s walled city of Shahjahanabad. The audits were done to assess the infrastructure and services gaps that exist in the area and to document these as objective data. This can then be used as an advocacy tool to facilitate up gradation of the area. Shahjahanabad, being centuries-old the settlement is currently facing many issues and challenges. Being densely populated housing residences and wholesale markets along with many heritage buildings; the area attracts people from allparts of the city for domestic shopping as well as national and international tourists. However, the infrastructure is inadequate to support these. The area thus is in dire need of redevelopment. METHODOLOGY The audits were carried out using the SafetiPin App. SafetiPin is a map-based mobile phone application, which works to make communities and cities safer by providing safety-related information collected by users and by trained auditors. At the core of the app is the Women’s Safety Audit. A Women’s Safety Audit (WSA) is a participatory tool for collecting and assessing information about perceptions of urbansafety in public spaces. The audit is based on nine parameters – Lighting, Openness, Visibility, Crowd, Security, Walk path, Availability of Public Transport, Gender Usage of Public Spaces and Feeling. The audits were done in the evening hours of 5pm-10pm on nine selected routes inside Shahjahanabad, to evaluate the level of safety andidentify ways to improve it. A total of 280 audit pins and 16 hazard pins were collected. SHAHJAHANABADAn Overview of Findings Safety Audits of the nine areas of Shahjahanabad indicate that the area offers basic safety in the evening hours. Each of the nine areas studied is different from the other. While the Jama Masjid, Red Fort and Chandni Chowk have been planned with a certain grandeur, the streets being used for commerce as well as residential purposes have a more intimate scale. The varying scales and uses have a direct relation with the perceived feeling of safety. While the parameters of gender usage and security are rated poorly, the area fares average in all other parameters. However, due to extreme congestion, open drains and litter, and fewer women using these spaces, these areas feel uncomfortable. Safety Audits reveal that certain issues are common across all nine areas. The exposed electrical wires are a major threat to life and property. In many places, they are very close to the windows of buildings and also hanging very low in the streets. Another major issue is the loading/unloading of goods taking place throughout the day. This adds to the congestion on the streets already choked with vehicles. Download Full Report in PDF Click Here
Women in Indian cities face sexual harassment on public transport systems with terrible regularity. Even though these crimes are common place, there is little or no official data on the massive scale of the problem in Lucknow. Victims rarely come forward to register their complaints with the police due to inconvenience, sense of shame or fear of being targeted by the offender. Under-reporting of cases of sexual harassment is a global phenomenon, and especially true of developing countries where a combination of conservatism, lack of police training, and poor sensitisation of state agencies discourages women from coming forward to register their complaints. In such a scenario, sexual victimisation surveys where respondents can share their experiences anonymously are an accepted form of investigation to guide policy making on the issue.In order to lift the veil from this dark shadow of crime against women, Lucknow-based Safe Safar in partnership with Department of Security and Crime Science at University College London (UCL) conducted a comprehensive study on sexual victimisation of women on public transport in Lucknow. Over a period of three months, a long-form survey and a specially developed smart phone app called SafetiPin were designed to collect data on multiple facets of sexual harassment ranging from nature of offences, profile of offenders and the sense of fear amongst women in Lucknow while using public transport. The respondents were young, educated women with an average age of 24 years who travel every day for work or education. The study was conducted by a research scholar from UCL, volunteers of Safe Safar, and students of Social Work Studies at Lucknow University. The survey instrument used in the study was of global standards, and followed a format similar to the National Crime Victimisation Survey (NCVS) used in the United States, and British Crime Survey (BCS) in the United Kingdom. It was especially designed by Dr Herve Borrion, Dr Jyoti Belur and Kartikeya Tripathi – all three leading academics in the field from UCL. Zeeshan Mohammad, Shariq Ahmad, Abhishek Balodi from Safe Safar supported this study in Lucknow. The survey used new definitions of sexual harassment framed by the central government after the brutal Delhi gang rape case as a basis to solicit information from the respondents. One of the aims of the study was to get information not only on serious cases of sexual assault but also on every day incidents of sexual harassment that go largely unreported. All the information supplied by the respondents was voluntary, and obtained through informed consent. The mobile phone app, SafetiPin was used by 10 volunteers to record their feelings of safety or insecurity while waiting for or using public transport. The volunteers conducted 309 audits in total that recorded the experiential aspects of a particular spot on parameters such as lighting, quick availability of transport, feeling of safety, and crowding. On analysis of the data it was found that none of the parameters scored more than 3.2 on a scale of 10. This shows a general feeling of insecurity and anxiety while using public transport in Lucknow.The research was conducted with an eye on the Lucknow Metro rail which will start its system operations from 2016. All the data collection was done along the proposed route of the metro rail line. The introduction of metro rail in Delhi contributed to safety and security of women, encouraging them to go out confidently for work and social engagements. It is hoped that Lucknow Metro too will bring a similar social change to the city. Studies like this are necessary to keep our focus on the fact that women continue to suffer in silence. Respondents reported regularly being victims of unwanted physical touch, sexual remarks, video-filming on the Vikram, bus and rickshaw in Lucknow. They also spoke of deep dissatisfaction with police in tackling common cases of harassment. An interesting finding was that all the women who were surveyed expressed an unwillingness to lodge a formal complaint at a police station, but an overwhelming majority of them wanted to report cases anonymously through modern technology like apps, social media and mobile phones. This is a challenge for government and law enforcement agencies to find ways to record crimes of street level harassment against women in a manner that women find comfortable. As long as that does not happen, the state agencies will continue to work with inadequate data which is insufficient for proper planning for crime prevention, reduction and prosecution.UCL and Safe Safar are optimistic that the study will assist police, Lucknow Metro Rail, and other policy makers to get an estimate of crimes against women on public transport in Lucknow, and use the same for future planning. Key findings of the study are: On Harassment • 82% women said that fellow male passengers had passed sexual comments during their travel, • 71% said men sang lewd songs on seeing them, • 66% reported whistling by men• One respondent reported being victim of unwanted touching on public transport in Lucknow as many as 60 times in the past six months• Vikram is the most common mode of transport for women with more than half of respondents (56%) using it every day, but only one-fifth (21%) said they felt secure during the journey• Women experienced strangers using smart phones to make their videos during travel • The women felt that travelling alone (73%), Clothes they were wearing (64%), Age (53%) made harassment more likely• Harassment took place at all times during the day, and all throughout the yearOn Feeling of Safety• SafetiPin App was used to conduct 314 audits by volunteers to rate sense of security at 314 different spots of public transport usage• None of the parameters such as lighting, sense of security, easy availability of transport scored more than 3.2 on a scale of 10. This is a low score for quality of public transport in a city. On Reporting of Crime • All the respondents (100%) wanted to report the crime anonymously. Most of them wanted to use a phone to report the crime• None of the respondents (0%) wanted to go to a police station and register a complaintOn Measures Taken by Women to Feel Safe• 83% of the women carried a mobile phone with them to feel safe• 76% women had tried to learn self-defence to feel safeOn Police• More than half the women (55%) were dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with the police in preventing sexual harassment cases or with arresting the culprits• 56% of the women said that offenders rarely or never get caught by the police On Lucknow Metro Rail • 98% of the women said they will use the new Lucknow Metro Rail system• 62% of the women said they will use the new Lucknow Metro Rail system every day Download Full Report in PDF Click Here
Introduction On the night of 16th December 54 representatives from various civil society organisations including Jagori, Safetipin, CFAR, Lawyers Collective, NFIW, AIPWA, Action India, Reclaim the Night, CHSJ, SNS, Samarthyam, Nirantar, Breakthrough, Women's Feature Service, Sakha Cabs, Azad Foundation, Miranda House, Kamla Nehru and several eminent women - Indira Jaising (Former Addl. Solicitor General, GOI), Vrinda Grover (Advocate Supreme Court), Kavita Krishnan, Annie Raja, Pamela Philipose, Kiran Shaheen, Meenu Vadera, Bijaylakshmi Nanda, Suneeta Dhar and Kalpana Viswanath, Anjalee - joined together with to conduct safety audits in New Delhi. Through this collective safety audit drive approximately 60 kilometres of roads were covered in Delhi and data was recorded on the gaps that exist in public infrastructure, social usage of public space, public transport and policing. The data was collected using Safetipin a mobile application for conducting safety audits. We were able to conduct 146 safety audits, along with observation and speaking to people on the streets, in public transport and waiting for public transport. The audits were conducted using various modes of public transport such as taxis, buses and metro. Each group covered their designated route using all 3 modes of transport and also walked parts of the route. The group audited four routes covering the North, South, East and West Delhi. The four routes were: • Civil Lines Metro Station to Jehangir Puri Metro Station covering a distance of approximately 9.2 kilometres. • Munirka Bus Stop to Mahipalpur a distance of approximately 7.6 kilometres. • Rajiv Chowk Metro Station to The Great India Place Mall in Sector 18, NOIDA and an additional route through Baba Kharak Singh Marg, CP, distance of approximately 20 • Shanti Niketan Bus Stop to Inderlok Metro Station a distance of 16.2 Kilometres. The four routes were chosen so that diverse demographics could be covered across the city. The Murnirka to Mahipalpur route was covered so that data could be re-collected on the situation of infrastructure in the area after the horrific gang rape that happened there exactly two years ago. The Shanti Niketan to Inderlok route collected observations of the recent 5th December assault on a women in a private taxi that brought attention back to the issue of women’s safety in the city. The two other routes covered the University of Delhi and also the NCR region of NOIDA. Download Complete Report on Safety Audits Delhi 16 December 2014
The use of public spaces in a city by women is determined by many factors such as access, safety, time of day, geographical and architectural arrangements and social beliefs and cultural narratives regarding the presence of women in public spaces. Providing information about localities and facilities in public spaces is one step towards creating safety for the residents of the city and increasing mobility especially for women. Final Year students of B.Sc. (H) Home Science from the Department of Human Development and Childhood Studies, Institute of Home Economics, University of Delhi conducted Safety Audit walks as a part of their paper on ‘Gender and Social Justice’. This was done in collaboration with Safetipin a mobile Application that collects safety data from across various cities in the world and Jagori a Women’s' rights NGO. Ms. Rashee Mehra, from the Safetipin team briefed the students about the app in a workshop held at the college. In this session the topic of gender and mobility was introduced and discussed. A common id representing IHE was created on the Safetipin app, which was used by the students to conduct safety audit walks. The audit was conducted through walks on streets near the college campus using the ‘Safetipin’ Application. The routes that were covered (in two groups) by the students were: ROUTE 1 Date: 20 January 2015 Time: 5:30 to 7pm Areas Observed: Shahpur Jat -‐> Sirifort Sports Complex -‐> Gulmohar Park -‐> Hauz Khas Police Station -‐>Mayfair Garden ROUTE2 Date: 20 January 2015 Time: 5:30 to 7pm Areas observed: Shahpur Jat-> Gulmohar Park ->NIFT ->Hauz Khas Market-> Mayfair Garden->IHE ROUTE 3 Date: 27th January 2015 Time: 2:20 Areas observed: IIT Delhi->Mother’s International School-> Kalu Sarai-> Hauz Khas bus terminal->Sarvpriya Vihar->IHE Route4 Date: 27th January 2015 Time: 2:20 Areas observed: SDA market->Padmini Enclave-> Green Park-> National Association of Blind Office-> Chor Minar->Mayfair Garden Download Complete IHE Safety Audit Report
The Jagori ‘Safetipin’ initiative was launched in July 2014 with the hope of transforming our cities into safer places, with special focus on urban slums of the southeast district of Delhi. As part of the process, women from Badarpur, a municipal ward in south-east were engaged with support from Jagori and Safetipin to conduct safety audits and conduct a pilot using the mobile application in the low-income community, The initiative focused on the examining how safe the areas in and around Badarpur are for women, by analyzing various aspects such as infrastructure, transportation, presence of police force, feeling of safety etc. For this, safety audits were conducted using the Safetipin mobile application. The routes audited for this initiative are: 1. Mathura Road, Mohan Cooperative Industrial Estate 2. Mathura Road, Molarband Extention 3. Kalindi Kunj, Mithapur Road 4. Jaitpur Road, Tajpur Pahadi For the Safetipin initiative, the auditors pinned a total of 412 safety information points on the selected routes of which there are 299 safety audit pins, 70 hazards pins, 19 harassment pins, 21 places and 3 feeling pins. These pins were collected between 5-9pm during a period of 3 months. Safety Audit A Women’s Safety Audit (WSA) is a participatory tool for collecting and assessing information about perceptions of urban safety in public spaces. It is a powerful tool for change, which can bring together an entire community to work to improve their quality of life. WSAs help create a safer and more comfortable environment for women, and other vulnerable group of people – for everyone (METRAC, 1998). It is process which brings people together to walk through a physical environment, evaluate how safe it feels, and identify ways to make it safer (WISE 2005). This is based on the premise that users of space are expert in understanding how they experience and feel about it. Streetlight Gender Usage Walk path Security Findings and Analysis The area surrounding Badarpur falls under South Delhi district, one of the affluent belts in the city. However, with poor lighting, lack of public and private security, lack of openness and low gender diversity in the area, the areas is perceived as unsafe, especially by women. The graph below (Graph1) indicates the average score of each safety audit parameter: Findings from the safety audits show that all the audit parameters except for public transport are below average, with 4 parameters being particularly low–openness of the area, street lights, presence of public and/or private security and gender diversity in the area. All the other parameters such visibility, presence of people, walk path, availability of public transport and feeling of safety score higher in relation to others. However, they all score below average. Download Complete Safety Badarpur Report.
The rapid pace and nature of urbanization taking place throughout the world has thrown up new challenges for governments, and their populations as well as social scientists and activists. Urban spaces provide new opportunities for people to build their homes and lives, but at the same time reinforce existing inequalities and often create new ones. There is increasing concern about women's safety in cities over the past few years. Creating safety involves much more than just responding to violence. It is important to create the conditions by which women are able to move about safely and without fear of violence or assault. Research has shown that many factors play a role in determining women’s access to the city including urban design and planning, community involvement, improved policing, usage of space etc. Keeping this in mind, we developed the mobile app and online platform Safetipin which collects information about public spaces through a safety audit that can be done by anyone, anywhere in the world. In cities everywhere in the world, women's safety in public spaces is becoming a growing concern. Safetipin is a free app and can be downloaded from the App store or Google play. At the core of Safetipin is the safety audit that measures nine parameters including lighting, the state of the walk path, as well as the presence of people and specifically women, on the streets and 'eyes on the street'. Each audit appears as a pin on the map and is used to compute the Safety Score of an area. This report examines the data from eight cities in India - Delhi, Kochi, Trivandrum, Calicut, Pune, Chennai, Guwahati and Jaipur. In all the cities, audits were done by trained volunteers over a period of a few months. Delhi being the place where Safetipin was introduced in 2013 has a much larger number of audits. In each city, a local NGO was a partner in the data collection and a minimum of 800 audits were conducted to provide enough data for analysis. Download Complete 8 Cities Safety Reports
DELHI NCR The National( Capital( Region (NCR) in India is the designation for the metropolitan area which encompasses New Delhi, as well as urban areas surrounding it in neighboring states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.NCR is India's largest and the world's second largest agglomeration with a population of over 21.7 million according to the 2011 Census. The share of urban population in NCR has been rising from 50.2% in 1991 to 62.5% in 2011 and the rural population declined in the same proportion. The sex ratio in Delhi is 868, which is below the national average of 940 as per census 2011. Delhi per capita income though among the highest in the country, masks the great inequality there is in the city. Literacy rate in Delhi has seen upward trend and is 86.21 percent as per 2011 population census. Of that, male literacy stands at 90.94 percent while female literacy is at 68.85 percent. There are several reputed universities in the city and institutes of higher learning that attract students from all over the country and even globally. The literacy rate also belies inequality both in terms of gender and class. The Public Perception Survey undertaken for the Delhi Human Development Report (HDR) in 2013 shows that over 70% of the illiteracy is concentrated in jhuggi jhopdi clusters, resettlement areas and urban villages. The migration rates were very high in the last decade and have stabilised now. Female workforce participation rates are very low in the city, with 11% reported in the 2011 census. While the overall housing situation is reported to be improving, there still exist a large number of homeless in the city, approximately 50,000 according to the Delhi HDR. Also, in the slum and resettlement areas, provision of services especially water and sanitation is extremely poor. Delhi accounts for 15.4% of crime against women in Indian cities. Delhi has witnessed an 18.3 per cent rise in crime against women in 2014 as compared to 2013, with a 31.6 per cent rise in rape cases. Delhi (5,194 cases) has accounted for 14.2% of total such crimes. Since the gruesome gang rape case in December 2012, we have seen a tremendous increase in reporting of rape and violence against women. This can be seen as due to increased awareness and better systems of reporting within the police. The post 2012 period also saw improvements to transport and installation of CCTV's and other responses to address the concerns of women's safety. Findings from Safety Audits In Delhi NCR, safety audits were carried out from September 2013 and major parts of the city have been covered. The idea was to cover residential spaces, university area, popular markets, main roads and ring roads, bus terminals and metro stations. Safety audits were done in all parts of Delhi NCR including lower al spaces, university area, popular markets, main roads and ring roads, bus terminals and metro stations. Safety audits were done in all parts of Delhi NCR including low income communities and the resettlement areas. At Present, there are over 1200 safety audit pins in Delhi NCR. Download Complete Delhi Report in Pdf
The findings of the study using the mobile application called ‘Safetipin’ undertaken by Sakhi Women’s Resource Centre, Thiruvananthapuram with the support of ‘Safetipin’, as a continuation of Safe City Free of Violence against Women and Girls Initiative in Kerala are presented here.The complete report can be downloaded here. Below are some of the finding of the report. ‘Safetipin’ Initiative in Kerala ‘Safetipin’ initiative in Kerala was launched as a follow up of the Safe City Free of Violence against Women and Girls Initiative with a hope to accelerate the process of transforming our cities into safer places. The study was conducted by Sakhi Women’s Resource Centre, Thiruvananthapuram with the support of ‘Safetipin’. The project period in Thiruvananthapuram was four months, from July to October, 2014. Thirty areas in the city were identified for safety auditing and to gather information on safety. In each selected area 25 audits were conducted. By the end of August 800 audits were completed in Thiruvananthapuram. ANALYSIS AND FINDING The survey helped in understanding the level of public infrastructure in Thiruvananthapuram city. It also resulted in finding out the correlation between visibility of women in the cities after dark and the level of public infrastructure. The audit team faced several issues of moral policing, catcalling and stalking during the audits. In Thiruvananthapuram, the safety auditors were selected students from Loyola College of Social Sciences, Sreekariyam and other interested students who approached Sakhi, of which 8 were men and 9 were women. A total of 800 audits were completed in 30 different areas in Thiruvananthapuram Corporation between July and August, 2014. In Map 1, Green pins indicate areas which are safe, amber pins for less safe places and red pins for unsafe placesThe study shows that, despite being the capital city of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram is far behind in ensuring the feeling of safety. Graph 2 indicates the score of each safety audit parameter on a scale (0-3). Findings from the audits show that four parameters have lowest rating. These are gender diverse spaces, presence of visible security personnel and walk path. This means that the city does not have the presence of enough women in public places, very few visible security personnel (private and public) in the city, and no proper walk paths in most of the areas. All other parameters such as availability of public transport, lighting, openness, visibility (which is how well you can be seen by others in a public space) and crowd, the score are higher.