A good public place is one where everyone feels like they have their own space to be, to engage with and to enjoy. This is impossible if we feel fear while occupying and moving through public places and hence, it is very important to make them safe. There are many aspects to safety. Here are a few that are vital: Good Infrastructure A public place needs to have good amenities and infrastructure so that the people using them are comfortable and at ease. This includes proper lighting so that people can see in all directions and feel free and safe to move around, good walk paths so that people can move around without impediment and proper seating for leisure which gives people a place to sit, relax and enjoy each other’s company. It also includes clean public toilets which determine how long people can stay out in a public place. In most places, especially in India, men are quick to use the side of the road as a public toilet (which let me make very clear, it is not) and women are left waiting till they reach their homes. The few toilets that do exist for women are either very dirty or locked at most times of the day or unsafe. It is imperative to provide infrastructure while planning public places. Inclusive Design When looking at a public place, usage by diverse sets of people is very important! Women or children do not feel safe in an all-male public place. The design has to be inclusive for all. A good example to understand this would be a park. It can be used by children because there is place for them to play and infrastructure for the same. It can be used by the elderly for morning and evening walks, if a proper walking track is created around it. A lively park is always a safe place to be. However, the same park without the infrastructure for children to play or to walk could become a hub for men to gather, gamble and drink. This is seen in some parks in and around Delhi, as seen by our research. Recently, we conducted a poll on social media asking women what they would do if there were no men on the streets post 9pm. The answers were basic things including walking without fear, going to a shop at night, sitting for fun in a park, etc. If we design a place for everyone to use, then everyone will use it. Active Streets More people, more activity, more safety! If you compare an empty street and a street full of vendors, people and activity, you would always choose the latter as a safer option. A street should have designated space for people and vendors and shops (which do not encroach on the walkpath) as they contribute to the concept of “eyes on the street”. A perfect example of this would be Chandni Chowk in Delhi. Though it is cramped and crowded, it is always safe because it is bustling with people. Be it just a casual conversation, a praise to the food or a bargain with the shopkeeper, the activity on the street helps with the perception of safety.
Regular readers of this blog do not need an introduction to Safetipin or the challenges that women face every day as they navigate the city. So, in this post, I offer my understanding of how Safetipin contributes to the feminist advocacy work for making Delhi a safer city for women, as an outsider. I am a doctoral researcher at the University of Melbourne, and I study the use of digital technology in the feminist advocacy for women’s right to the city. For my thesis, I am studying Safetipin’s work in Delhi over the last five years, and as part of my data collection, I have spent the last three months talking to people in Delhi who have either worked with Safetipin directly or have used the data generated through the two Safetipin applications – My Safetipin and Safetipin Nite. My fieldwork consisted of interviews that were organized to mimic the sequence in the process of data collection and advocacy happening at and around Safetipin. I first spoke to the team at Safetipin, the people involved in data collection and data analysis, followed by the non-profit agencies, who use Safetipin’s data for advocacy work. Next, I spoke with people in the municipal and state level governments, who have worked with Safetipin’s data and with local urban experts who have been observing Delhi’s evolution over the last few years. Speaking to these people in the form of a semi-structured interview, I mapped how the data collected through the application is transformed, supporting implementation of solutions and helping measure change. Through this exercise, four things stood out to me: i) SafetiPin’s ability to turn women’s experience into quantitative data is at the heart of its success. This is by no means surprising. It simply demonstrates how changing the way information is presented can be more effective than the severity of the information itself. The data almost acts like a foot inside the door that then creates further room for the discussion. It begins to build an understanding of women’s plight among government officers, the majority of whom are men. ii) Safetipin has leveraged the power of messaging: It successfully uses the phrase ‘dark spots’ to create room for discussing the issues of women’s safety in the government. A ‘dark spot’ is a data point in Safetipin’s safety audits, which represents a sidewalk/footpath or a side of the street that is in darkness. Once identified, the government can go to their location and fix them. The term has a stickiness and it remains with people for a long time. Everyone I met during my time in Delhi understood what the phrase meant even if they did not know what the My Safetipin application was. One of the interviewees demonstrated an almost spiritual connection with the term, strongly associating darkness with crime and light with the eradication of crime. This is likely based on the association of darkness with evil and light with good within religion and culture. The interviewee repeatedly said that the street lights would wash away the darkness of the criminal mind stop and them from conducting criminal acts. iii) Creating long-lasting change is a steep hill to climb, that is until government’s limited capacity to implement projects is addressed. Safetipin’s data helps here by offering straight forward infrastructure-based interventions on a very complex issue. iv) Safetipin started as a crowd-sourcing application, but now, it is more a digital data collection tool. It has three primary data sources – (1) Uber Dashcam data, (2) User data, and (3) Local volunteers and community members. Majority of its data comes from dashcam and local volunteers. While this means that the data is not crowdsourced in the traditional sense, it remains very versatile. Data collected through Safetipin’s two applications can be used in different ways to serve the specific needs of a community. This is evident from four key applications of Safetipin’s data in Delhi that I learned about from my discussions with the different agencies that partner with Safetipin. They are: Use for empowerment of local women – in case of the Aana-Jaana project in Madanpur Khadar. Infrastructure improvements – emerging from the engagement in Madanpur Khadar and CR Park. Gender sensitization of government offers – Through CSR’s training of police officers, and of municipal engineers through consistent exposure to Safetipin’s data. Community engagement – CR Park Community Green Initiative’s work on infrastructure improvement through community engagement over digital safety audits. Safetipin’s quantitative data offers a shared language that everyone seems to understand. On one hand, the simplicity and ease of working with Safetipin’s quantitative data makes it attractive for the government agencies who want to create a better city but struggle with limited capacity and resources. On the other, civil society and advocacy groups use Safetipin’s data to highlight the lived experiences of women in the city. This seems to ease the collaboration between the different stakeholders. While the efforts of the advocacy groups keep the whole process from turning into a token infrastructure improvement intervention, the use of quantitative evidence by government makes sustained incremental change possible. The success of this combination is obvious as the government continues to use Safetipin’s data to guide its interventions. As an outsider, I will be curious to see how the nature of solutions being implemented evolves and how advocacy groups and community groups get even more creative with the applications of the data. This blog post would be incomplete without mentioning my gratitude towards the team at Safetipin for their support during my fieldwork. Sonali Vyas and Shreya V. Basu made my job easier than I could have imagined and they spared time out of their already busy schedules to answer my incessant questions about Safetipin’s past, present and future. I will be eternally grateful to Dr Kalpana Viswanath for hosting me at Safetipin and for indulging my interest in Safetipin’s work over the last few years.
As I boarded the flight from Narita airport to Delhi, I had tears in my eyes at the thought of leaving a place which kept me safer than my own country. Japan is known for its safety and hospitality. However, for a woman from Delhi who is trained at being absolutely alert at all times and taking decisions which prioritise safety, it was an overwhelming experience. During my exchange program at the Yamanashi Gakuin University in Kofu, bicycling back to the dorm at 2 AM, going out for late-night-study-break strolls at 3 AM and getting snacks from Lawson, a 24-hour convenience store, was not very unusual. It almost felt like a dream knowing that nobody looked at me, let alone stared at me. It was hard to acknowledge that safety was unfortunately a luxury for a Delhi girl, because back home, it was very common to find at least two rubbernecks standing across the street giving you a pain in the neck. It was due to the mind-your-own-business culture that my access to public spaces undeniably widened in Japan. Unrestrictedly moving about the corners of the city at whatever time of the day is a far-fetched dream for a Delhi girl. And since cycling is very common for travelling short distances, I managed to explore most of the attractions in the city of Kofu with only the fear of getting lost. ‘Yeh Delhi hai’(this is Delhi) was a statement that often restricted my mobility back home. So when I told my mom of the times when I arrived in my dorm in Kofu at 3 AM and she freaked out, I responded with a sardonic ‘Yeh Japan hai’ (this is Japan) which followed a short laughter shared by us. As a woman, roaming unaccompanied at night in a city like Delhi is often thought twice. Till date, the Jyoti Singh rape case implicitly remains in our memories to haunt us if anything feels wrong. Being a pedestrian or pedaler at night in Delhi is usually undesirable. Time spent on a public street is very minimal. Either one is in the ladies coach of the metro or inside a private transport during these hours. Part of it is also because very few women are outside, if at all. However, the diligent work ethic in Japan allows for more women to be outside their homes for longer hours. Women work as salespersons at 24 hour convenience stores, waitresses at restaurants which remain open for as long as 3 AM, delivery persons and truck drivers and therefore women’s movement around the city is more or less continuous throughout the day. These positions are not only occupied by older women, but also by younger women taking up these jobs in order to fund their living costs as high school or university students. Female employment in Delhi is only about 10% according to the Employment and Unemployment Status in Delhi 2011-2012 report published by the state government. Out of the 10 percent, it is quite evident that a very small share of women take up night shifts. And as such, it is quite obvious that women in Delhi do not enjoy their right to the city as much as men do. Justifying women’s restrictions with beguilements of morality and protectionism is not something new in the Indian culture. ‘Itni raat ko bahar kya kar rahi thi’ (what were you doing outside at night) is often a question that normalises the compulsion of demonstrating a purpose to go out at night. At times when I return home from concerts, I often receive curious looks and turning heads while passing through queues of men at the metro platforms until I reach the women-only waiting area. And so as I finally arrived at the Delhi airport, completing my four-month long memorable trip to Japan, I could not avoid the hollering of the taxi drivers at the airport who surrounded me with an interest in not only looting an international travel return but also riding a single girl back home at 11:30 PM. Thankfully my parents arrived on time and I got back home safe. For a few days I felt very disheartened knowing that I will have to get used to the staring again, so I stayed at home, inside my shell, to avoid disappointment. It took time to digest the reality and get accustomed to the city again. Returning from one of the safest places in the world to one of the most dangerous places was difficult. I wish every Delhi girl could experience a world like Japan, a place safer than their homes.
Safety in public spaces is of paramount importance for everyone. Yet, women are often more concerned about their safety as compared to men. The lack of safe mobility choices and poor last mile connectivity adversely impacts women’s growth both socially and economically. For women to use public spaces freely, it is important that they perceive the public spaces as safe. On International Women’s Day, 2019, NDTV in partnership with UBER launched the Roshan Dilli Campaign with the aim to improve the safety standards in India’s capital, Delhi by improving the lighting in public spaces. Based on our data and external sources, it has been identified that lighting is an important factor that strongly influences a womens’ perception of safety. The campaign has been a huge success and has received support from people all over the country. Safetipin is happy to be the data partner for NDTV in the Roshan Dilli campaign which provided a strong media platform for citizens to participate and express their concerns over safety in Delhi. Using our two apps, My Safetipin and Safetipin Nite, we collected large scale data in the city. The data collected was rated on 8 parameters including lighting, walk path, visibility, public transport, people, gender usage, security and openness as a part of our safety audit. Many public places which are frequently visited by many young girls and women such bus stops, metro stations, public parks, public toilets, schools and universities were also audited on the nine parameters of the safety audit. The Safetipin team analysed the entire set of collected data and identified poorly lit areas in Delhi. The photographs of the identified dark spots, along with the geo location were shared with NDTV to make improvements. As part of this initiative, NDTV approached the Delhi government and lit up many areas in the city like Pragati Maidan, Peera Garhi, Saket and Shivaji Road in the short span of a few months. The parking areas around Saket malls were also lit up and are now well maintained. Improvements in the lighting condition have encouraged many girls and women in the city to access public spaces without fear. Though lighting is not the only factor which determines a women’s perception of safety, it is surely one important factor that can address the issue of womens’ safety in public places. We at Safetipin are committed to women’s safety and work towards creating gender friendly, safe and inclusive cities. We are hopeful that Safetipin’s data is used by concerned authorities in other cities as well to improve the overall safety in public spaces. More information about the Roshan Dilli Campaign can be accessed at: https://special.ndtv.com/roshan-dilli-a-campaign-to-light-up-public-spaces-in-delhi-and-make-the-city-safer-for-women-47/make-delhi-safe
This time I spoke to Sanjana Nagesh, a 22 year, college student in Australia studying marketing and she has truly cracked her course. If you don't believe me, just check out BrownGirlGang (BGG). It’s a space that features inspiring and badass South Asian women around the world. The mission of this page is to inspire people and blur cultural boundaries. Keep reading to know more about Sanjana, her views and what motivates her to keep BGG going. Q. What is your perception of women’s safety in today’s day and age? I think that it’s alright but there’s definitely still a long way to go. It’s all comparative and also depends on which part of the world you’re in; for example, in terms of independence, we can do a lot more than previous generations could. In my ajji’s (grandmother’s) time, basic things like education were tough but I’ve been lucky enough to attend my university and feel safe in that environment. There is also so much work to be done to achieve universal safety for women and Safetipin is an amazing initiative to make women's safety more accessible and safer, in a scalable way. Q. Do you use public transport? What is your view about it? I use public transport a lot and it’s helpful and safe to an extent, as it depends on the time and location of your travels. If people are going to work or university during peak hours of the day, then it’s very different from travelling out to events in the evening or at night. I also see a huge difference between the way my male friends approach public transport in general. I think as girls we tend to take more precautions, especially in terms of public transport at night. For me personally, after 9 pm I would feel safer taking an Uber or a cab. Q. What according to you is a safe space? A safe space is a place in the public domain where you can go from point A to point B without feeling threatened in any way. For me, a safe space would have a lot of people and in an orderly fashion. I would also relate a safe space with being a place that is well lit. For example, if there are shops on a street then they provide lighting and a sense of safety, as well as the presence of cars on the road. Basically, anything to keep the area busy. An example of a safe space that comes to mind is the beach. There are always lots of people, shops and there are tourists too which adds to its safety. Q. What differences do you see as a woman in Bangalore and Australia? Both these places have very different environments. It’s hard to say as I have lived in Sydney my whole life and only travel to Bangalore once a year for a couple of weeks, so my knowledge of Bangalore’s public space is much more limited in comparison. As a result, when I’m in Bangalore I’m much less independent and I can’t go anywhere I want like I do back home in Australia. In Australia, I know the road rules, train schedule, etc. I understand Sydney since it’s where I’ve spent my whole life. When I go to Bangalore, my dad will tell me if a place is safe or not - I don't know about the specific areas on my own. Things like how to cross the road can't be learned online, it just comes from living there. One of the biggest differences between Bangalore and Australia that I feel exists is the population and that ends up playing a huge role in the kind of public spaces that exist. Australia has a tiny population in comparison, so there are less people walking near you in public spaces. In contrast, when I’m in Bangalore I can’t be sure of the intent when someone brushes against me or stands next to me without reason. I’m unsure of whether it’s malicious or a mistake. That being said, I definitely don't think any place is perfect. In the past I, have definitely called a friend or family member if I am walking alone at night, or I just walk into a shop to make sure no one is following me. The saddest part is that every girl has a story like this to share, regardless of which part of the world she is in. Q. What according to you are the biggest stereotypes that brown women face? One of the biggest stereotypes brown women face (especially overseas) is that they are seen as one-dimensional personalities. Many people don’t understand that we can be a combination of cultures, experiences and opinions. I have desi friends who exclusively watch Bollywood movies and only listen to Hindi songs and I also have desi friends who never do. Whether someone goes to the temple every weekend or hasn’t been in a while, it’s completely up to them and shouldn’t make anyone more or less ‘brown’. It doesn't matter where you fall on the cultural spectrum, you can be whoever you want. I’ve received both types of feedback on my Instagram account, that it’s not showcasing enough contemporary brown culture as well as it’s not showcasing enough traditional brown culture. That makes no sense to me! I think everyone should have the freedom to be completely themselves. Q. Tell us a bit about your experience with BrownGirlGang. BGG has taught me so much. Discovering so many awesome and fierce South Asian women on a daily basis is so amazing. This is something I know I’m passionate about. Even if I’m tired on the train back from university, I take out time to post and engage. I think the reason why BGG has got the traction that it has is because of the lack of representation that existed prior. It was something I started, with no expectation of it reaching so many people, but I’m happy that it did. We’re an accidental sisterhood that got created, and we’re only going to get bigger! Q. Do you have any advice you’d want to give young women? It’s important to remember that each of us have our own stories, and that we should share it with one another. We should openly talk about our fears and have conversations that help better the environment we live in. It’s scary to be alone sometimes and so we should be there for each other. I think whilst women’s safety is better than it was 50 years ago, it still isn’t enough in terms of us as human beings. When we’re overwhelmed or just going through a lot, it’s nice to be able to turn to other women going through the same thing. That’s one of the reasons why I love BGG - it’s a group of women supporting women and is full of good vibes only!
One more reference to “Khadar Ki Ladkiyan”! We know that it was a great learning experience for the girls but now we want to talk about what an amazing experience it was for the people working with the girls. We’ve put up interviews with the girls and thought it would be interesting to know about more about the project from someone working with the girls. So, let me introduce Sarita to you! She was with the girls even before the project started and has been a pillar at Jagori for the last 2 decades. She’s fun, insightful and extremely welcoming to talk to. Keep scrolling to know a little about her career journey and the amazing work she does. Q. Can you tell me about your work with Jagori? I have been with Jagori since 2000. When I joined, I was a part of the resource centre which included, but was not limited to community research work, counselling and documentation. Soon after I joined, I also got involved with the protection of women who had faced any form of violence which was a new experience and a very sensitive one. In the beginning, we at Jagori, used to only work with women as we thought they were our target audience, but soon realised that that was not enough to make a change. We had to work with everyone so that they understood the problems and the extent to which it affects a woman’s life. So, we started working with boys, men as well as young people. We always wanted to teach and have people understand how violence can occur and how there is such a thing as domestic violence. It may seem so obvious to us but there were a lot of people from urban villages, resettlement colonies, etc., that we met who were raised in environments where this was not taught. Due to this, we thought it necessary to educate more people on this matter. It was integral for us to understand the community and create a proper relationship with them before trying to get them to make a change. We wanted to talk to them about gender based problems but before getting into that directly, we spoke to them about the condition of the toilets, their houses, their community, the quality of drinking water etc. This way we built a rapport with them and understood their concerns and problems in the community. It was only after this that we explained to them what violence is as well as its impact. In the beginning, they didn’t know all the terms for different forms of harassment or its repercussions. They all knew what “ched chad” (eve-teasing) was, but it was more of a joke to them. So, we taught the boys that troubling girls on the street for fun wasn't okay and explained the same to the girls. We also had to teach them about their rights on leaving school. For example, the young girls in the community didn't know that they had an option to stay in school or that they had the right to even if their families were against it. We had to teach them that they had a voice and they should fight for it. Q. Can you tell me about the work with the Khadar girls and of the overall project? In 2002-2003, the people living in Hanuman Camp, Alaknanda and South Delhi were relocated to Khadar by the government. We had an entire research project to understand their migration and how it affected their opportunities. That’s when I first met some of the girls who were a part of the Aana Jaana (Coming and Going) project. When we started doing safety audits with the young girls of Madanpur Khadar, we realised how big a problem mobility is for them. So along with AHRC, Kings College London, Ayona Dutta and Safetipin, we started a project with the young girls of Khadar. We took out time to understand their public spaces, what they understand of fear and what their perception of safety is. With this project, we got a much deeper understanding of the girls and their lives which was an excellent experience for me. These were the girls we had already done work with before so to see them in this light was new and enlightening. I saw them grow and gain so much confidence through the course of this project. 10 of the girls in the project had a job so it was a sort of barrier to the project. They had to find time for the project after work and on the weekends, which was tough but they managed it very well. Once they put their mind to succeeding in both work and the project, there was nothing that could stop them. They were so dedicated and it was amazing to be a part of their journey. Another aspect of the project was the Whatsapp diaries. Through this the girls would document their journeys around the city. For example, if someone was being inappropriate in the bus, they wouldn't be able to speak up at times, but they would vent out in the Whatsapp group. It was a safe space for them. After this, we started with the story mapping part of the project which was displayed as a story of the journey in the city at the Mandi House Metro Station in Delhi for a month. The final part of the project, which gained the most traction, was the rap song, ‘Khadar Ki Ladkiyan’. The girls really put in a lot of their personal time and a lot of them even faced some problems at home because of it. That, however, did not stop them. They were so motivated to tell their story and take control of their lives that it was great to see. I am happy to have been a part of the project.
Ayona Datta, author of “The Illegal City: Space, Law and Gender in a Delhi Squatter Settlement”, and Busk Medal awardee from Royal Geographical Society (with IBG) is Reader of Urban Futures (Associate Professor) in King’s College, London. She has a background in architecture, environmental design and planning. We worked with her on the #AanaJaana project which has created a fruitful partnership between us. She is a dedicated, hard working and an extremely bright person who is super fun to work with and talk to. I had a great time speaking with her for this interview, I feel like I have learned a lot! Keep scrolling to know more about Ayona, her journey and the challenges she has faced. Q. Can you tell me your interests, in research and work? My research interests include postcolonial urbanism and the examination of cities in the global south through the lens of gender. I have been researching gender power dynamics and how it is experienced from the household level to the physical forms of cities – its politics, social and cultural dynamics. Recently, I have been examining the politics of smart cities and the intersection between the digital, political, social and physical processes in the same. I want to address these issues by looking at disadvantaged groups be it caste, colour, gender etc. My interest in smart cities has mainly been because of the shift to digital technologies to govern the city which we have seen in the last few years. There is a digital platform for everything and it’s really interesting for me to see as an academic - the growth and impact of online spaces. It’s also very intriguing to see the impact digitization has on physical spaces. Q. I know that you grew up in Delhi and are currently raising your daughters in London. What is your experience with that? Also, I know about your busy work schedule, how do you maintain the work-life balance? This is an interesting question and I can say that it’s very different growing up in India and in the UK. What really works for me and is a key factor in me being able to do the work that I want, is that I have a very supportive partner. We are both from India and we make it a point to visit home each year at least once. Even though I live outside, my work is on India because that’s something I have always connected with and I think that feeling reaches my girls as well. My work involves a lot of travel and so at times, it is difficult to manage with other responsibilities. Bringing my children up outside India is a challenge at times because they are not embedded in all the cultural norms and practices that I grew up with. But it is also not that different. As a Bengali growing up in Delhi in the 1980s, I have had to deal with questions about difference, particularly in languages and food. For my girls, it’s about racial difference, skin colour and religion. I talk to them about difference and try to make them feel proud of their identity, and who they are. Q. How did you get interested in gender and urbanism? In my final year research project for my Architecture degree, I decided to work with women construction labourers. Little did I know at that time, that this project would help define the rest of my career. Going in, I had no idea what I was in for. For my project, I was supposed to address the issue from an architectural front and not a social one. So, I went in, with no social research methods training, and got confronted by so many issues all at once, like poverty, labour, exploitation, children on site etc., with no guidelines on how to deal with it. Having grown up in a middle-class family, this was a real eye-opener for me. I had initially planned a survey but ended up throwing it away quite early on in the project. I started staying in with the workers, eating with them in the evening and spending time with them so that I could understand their lives better. I used to spend the day in Nehru place which was where they were building the big hotels and offices and then go back in the buses with them to the labour camps near Surajkund. My parents would be very worried but I think it was this experience that really shaped me. When I finally presented the project to my faculty, I was repeatedly questioned on how I had incorporated architectural concerns in my project and I had no answer. In the end, my supervisor supported me and said something that I keep with me till date. It was that as architects and planners, addressing issues of gender and labour exploitation in the production of our cities is our moral responsibility. Though this project was an eye-opening one, my real academic inroads in issues of gender was when I started my PhD. I wanted to focus on women in slums but I was told that that was social work and not architecture and that’s when I got into the interdisciplinary field of human geography. It’s a path I had never thought about but I opened up to it to raise questions on bigger issues including gender-based violence. My architectural education was very modernist and we were taught to solely focus on the design. I agree that you can’t design your way out of gender-based violence but architecture needs to be embedded in a social context and respond to social and political imperatives. I was lucky to have had good mentors and be introduced to feminist geography, sexualized labour and conversations on gender identity and performance during my PhD days in Arizona. I got into postcolonial urbanism towards the end of my PhD because I was looking at the history of gender power relationships in the building of cities, which showed me the links between present and colonial laws and practices. Q. What has been your deepest insight from the #AanaJaana project? And how do you think the girls have dealt with the outcomes of the project? For me, the project was a really big learning experience. Before starting, I had not understood the paradoxical nature of the urban periphery in Madanpur Khadar. The girls that we worked with were relatively advantaged as digitally able millennials when compared to the other families of the locality but were still marginalized in terms of transport and basic amenities (like water). The women of Khadar have different boundaries and expectations as compared to men in Khadar as well as women of the middle class. One incident that I vividly remember is when one of the girls who used to have a very strict curfew would sneak out of her house to come for the video shooting. One time her brother came out to the main road and insisted she go home immediately. She stayed strong and refused because she wanted to shoot the hip-hop video. We encouraged her to go home for her safety but she stood her ground. That really moved me. Gender empowerment is more than just a political issue, it's emerges from micro experiences such as this one. On a bigger level, this project and the song (“Khadar Ki Ladkiyan”) have become international. King’s College presented it on their website recently and that’s great exposure. The girls have been called “Gully Girls” in the media and they have challenged so many things like the masculinized form of rap music and the condition of their environment. They have gained a lot of visibility through this project and I think that’s great because visibility can be a path to legitimacy. The girls always told me that through the #AanaJaana project, they learned a lot about gender and found a safe and comfortable space for leisure. Working with them has been so enriching and insightful. My hope for this project is that it carries on as a long-term project and reaches many more women and girls because it has shown the transformational power of the arts. Q. How do you think the issue of women’s safety has evolved over the last decade? Since I don’t reside in India, I somewhat feel like an outsider to the Indian feminist movement, but I definitely identify with it even though I’m not deeply embedded in it. However, on a bigger note, I think a lot has changed since the Nirbhaya case. The ground level of harassment has changed. For example, when I was in college, it was war on the streets. Now I feel, and this is my personal experience, that men are slightly more cautious of their actions in public places. The #MeToo movement helped spread awareness about sexual harassment and allowed women to talk about it without the burden of proof. But, the #MeToo movement has not really touched any of the Khadar girls or women and girls of the working classes. It has largely remained a middle-class movement. Even if the women in working classes decided to take to social media, they run a greater risk of cyber bullying and harassment for which they don't yet have the support or confidence to deal with. I know we have come a long way with sexual harassment and opening up about it but there’s a lot more we can do to make the entire movement more inclusive.
I got the amazing opportunity to speak with Dr. Nandita Shah, Co-Director of Akshara Centre which is a not-for-profit women’s organisation based in Mumbai, working for the empowerment of women and girls. Nandita is an activist, academic and researcher who has been part of the women’s rights movement for the last 30 years. She has completed both her Bachelors and Masters in Social Work. To understand more about women, their work and neo liberalisation, she obtained her PhD thesis from the University of Amsterdam. She has always been interested in this field and has done some incredible work in it. Keep scrolling to see all that she has achieved and the experiences she has had over the last 3 decades! Q. How did Akshara start out? Can you tell me about the work you do? Akshara emerged from the contemporary women’s movement and the women’s studies movement of the 1980s. Our participation politicised us in gender theory and the struggle for gender equality. We realised that young people, especially in colleges needed to be gender sensitised and involved in social actions which led to establishing Akshara as a centre for feminist literature and studies. Our vision is to empower young women and create a gender-just society. We would like to see all young women be conscious of gender inequality and take steps towards self-sufficiency. We would like young men to understand male privilege and support women’s struggles. We would also like our state authorities to bring in laws and policies which will favour equality. The Safe City Movement helped push our advocacy agenda for prevention of violence on public buses and railway systems as well as with the municipality. We have also played a key role in establishing the ‘Gender Resource Centre with the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM)’. Akshara has supported the Police Department in setting up a GPRS based emergency helpline for women (103) in Mumbai and its suburb, Thane. Akshara has been able to institute a long-term partnership of safer travel for women commuters in public buses and the railways. Q. Can you tell me about Akshara’s work with young boys and girls? Why do you think it is important to work with young people? Young people are always in a learning mode and are full of enthusiasm to take action, so, it’s always fun engaging with them. Akshara’s aim is to support the youth to maximize their leadership potential. We believe that the youth are a formidable force that can contribute to bringing about a social change. Young women’s leadership has to be built and young men have to be engaged in this process of building a gender-just world. We have two programs which engage 500 young people every year who in turn reach out to more than 8000 people in the city. I feel that low family incomes, lack of access to education and a good job and the nature of the social structures and stigma lead to the lack of a platform for several young individuals, who may otherwise be open to new and unorthodox views. Young women have to further endure additional layers of exclusion and exploitation on account of gender bias. In an attempt to bridge one type of gap - between access to information and gender awareness – Akshara has been striving to provide the youth with a platform for greater civil society participation, engagement at a policy-level and improvement in their quality of life. Based in low-income pockets and colleges of Mumbai, the ‘Youth for Change’ and ‘Empowering Dreams’ programs work with the marginalised youth in order to enable them to reflect on their own lives, views and prejudices on gender equality and violence against women. In doing so, they question the existing notions of patriarchy, masculinity and power in society. The programs help these young men and women to channelize their agency to become ‘Gender Champions’, as they take up the challenge of working with other students, and involving themselves in socially-relevant tasks and advocacy to build a gender-just society. Q. How was your experience of adding a Gender chapter in the Mumbai Development Plan? Gender was one thing that was always missing in the Development Plans (DP) in India. So, when the Mumbai Development Plan was to be renewed, we joined the citizens network called “Hamara Shehar Vikas Abhiyan” to engage with the planning process. The Gender and DP Group was formed to push the women’s agenda within the plan as gender intersects with all issues including housing, transport, education, work, safety and social justice. Our task was to ensure that there was recognition for the fact that women experience cities differently and the new plan should be formulated with the intention of bridging that gap. Our focus was to include spaces for women which would encourage employment and provide support to working women. The entire process took around 50 months. Eventually, when the revised draft of DP 2034 was released in 2018, it became the first urban plan in India to have an entire chapter devoted to gender and planning. Chapter 22 titled “Gender, Special Groups and Social Equity can be called a landmark. It helped us articulate various services like multipurpose housing for women which includes emergency shelter, care centres for children and senior citizens, centres for skill building and marketing etc. To institutionalize it, we asked for an advisory board of 8 people from different backgrounds, which was approved recently and will oversee the allocation of land and implementation of the plan. This is a fine example of gender mainstreaming. The gender inclusion in DP became a reality due to two factors. The first was that the Gender and DP Group was able to clearly enunciate what it wanted in the plan and how to make gender possible within the framework of the existing plan. The second was the willingness of the Chairperson of the Revision Committee and his team to engage with the issue and understand the viewpoint of the Gender and DP Group. One without the other would have not yielded the same results. Q. What are the challenges you feel that women face in terms of their safety? And what do you think would make women feel safer? Mumbai is considered a safe city compared to others in the country. However, women in the city find sexual harassment in public spaces as one of the biggest problems. We conducted a survey of over 5000 women and found that, in the day time, all crowded places were a problem and after dark all uncrowded spaces were. Women felt safe in busy spaces with pedestrians and hawkers. The authorities responded to the results of our survey by promising to increase policing, install CCTV cameras on the roads and increase surveillance. We find this protectionist notion of safety a challenge to deal with. The other challenge is an internal one for women. Women should be able to exercise their right to take risks, to go out, to travel and to claim their city spaces. Women should not have to stay at home. They should be able to assess their own sense of safety and be mobile. Women need to actively be a part of conversations- be it with their families, at work or with themselves. Safety is only a starting point for the change we need as women and it is not up for negotiation. For women, the night is another big challenge. They will do anything to avoid going out in the night by themselves. Working women tend to avoid the night shift. So, reclaiming the night for themselves and moving around freely in public spaces is always difficult. This conversation needs to be built with girls so that they are also aware of what they can and cannot do. It’s also very important to have these conversations at the city level.
There were so many amazing girls who were a part of the Khadar Ki Ladkiyan hit song and I felt that talking to just one of them wasn’t enough. So, I spoke to Seema recently. She lives in Madanpur Khadar and has been there since 2001 when she and her family were relocated from Nizammudin. She has worked with Jagori and even completed her fellowship there. Now, she is working with Safe Approach NGO where she works as a caretaker at night. I hope Seema inspires you as much as she has inspired me. Keep reading to know more about her, the challenges she has faced and the strong and confident ways in which she overcame them! Can you tell me more about Khadar, your family and community? When my family and I moved to Madanpur Khadar, the place was a complete mess. There were no amenities and it was very dirty. The men in and around the area would be gambling and overall, it was just a very unsafe place. Now if you see the place, it is definitely better but there is still much more that can be done. The move to Khadar was challenging but we all managed. I have one sister and one brother. I am the youngest so I am always given extra love from everyone. Growing up I never felt like my brother was given better treatment than me or my sister, though some of my friends in the community faced these kinds of issues. Having older siblings is like having another set of parents. My brother would tell me not to wear certain dresses out and as a kid, I would listen. However, now, I wear whatever I feel comfortable in and he sees the confidence in me, so he also doesn’t fight it anymore. When I first got my night job as a caretaker, my family was very against it. My mother said that it wouldn’t be safe for a girl to have a night job and she was very worried about how I would get home at that time. I didn’t just want to be stubborn and fight with them so I sat them down and tried to explain it as well as I could and told them that I was very keen on doing this job. I managed to convince them to let me try it out and it has now been a few months and things seem to be going quite well. Tell me about the experience of the Aana Jaana project and making the video? Aana (Coming) and Jaana (Going) is something that happens on a daily basis. We did it for school and now we’re doing it for work. There have been times when some uncomfortable incidents have taken place and we would let it go but through the whatsapp diaries, which was a big part of this project, we were able to share our experiences with each other and that became a safe space for all of us. We could talk about our feelings and that felt good. Before we started shooting, I knew that we would be out on the streets and people would be staring so once we actually started, I was not flustered or distracted by the people around. What was tough for a bit was looking into the camera and saying the words. I think all of us in the video took some time to get used to that but once we got the hang of it, it was great. Nandan bhaiya, who planned the shoot, was such a great help and he’s someone that I can still go to for any help if I need. What changes have you seen in yourself and your community in the last few years? Just a few days back, when I was coming back from work, I saw something which was surprising for me. There were 3 young girls, each 5-years-old, who were sitting together. One of the girls was pressing the other one’s stomach while she was talking about pain. I realised then that these girls were pretending to be pregnant in their game. So, I went and asked their parents about it. Their first reaction was to scold the kids but I told them to stop and think about why the kids even thought of this as an idea for a game. If they have such limited exposure, what else can one expect? I used to feel a little unsafe when I would travel alone at night, but now it’s become a habit. I remember before, when I used to travel to Nizamuddin, the buses would be so crowded that being pushed around and groped was common. This was at the time when I was working with Jagori so I would share this with the office when I would reach. Talking to them and working with them was a big learning experience for me. It helped me understand safety better. I think more than the place, it’s us who have changed. Whenever I would be out on the streets in the evening, people, especially men would pass comments and it would make me uncomfortable. Sometimes the way people look at me is so disgusting. It feels like they are undressing me with their eyes. Now, I stand up to them and question them about it and they either get embarrassed or walk away. Lots of my friends who live elsewhere tell me that it’s great that I stand up for myself but when their stares are so intrusive, I feel like I have no other choice! What was the reaction to the video from your family and community? During the whole course of the Aana Jaana project, I had kept my parents informed about all the events. So, they knew about the whatsapp diaries and the song. They were actually very supportive. They kept telling me that through this project and video, I would be able to show the realities of our community. When the video finally came out, they really liked it. They showed it to all the other families in our neighbourhood as well. It was nice to see them so proud of me. Quite a few of my friends also said they liked it and what we said in the video. I think they were happy that we spoke so freely and openly.
We have done some work in Port Moresby around market areas and public transport and we did this project with UN Women and were so incredibly lucky to meet and work with some amazing people. One of the people we got to know was Lizette Soria Sortello. Lizette is a Peruvian, which has played an important role in the way she understands a city and those insights are clearly seen in this interview and in her work. She is an urban sociologist working with UN Women. Keep reading to know more about the awesome work Lizette has done and about her learnings and experiences along the way. Q. Could you tell me about your experience of living in Peru and how the move to Canada was? I grew up in three Latin American cities where sexual harassment in public spaces was normalized, as in many cities across the globe. Growing up there, I thought it was normal and I was used to changing my route to places to avoid being catcalled, or taking a longer route to find a safer route back home. This perception of mine changed when I moved to Montreal at the age of 18. It was such an eye-opening moment for me when I was able to experience the city in ways that I had never done before. I was able to go around by myself and ride my bike at night without much worry which was quite different from back home. I felt empowered. Noticing this difference got me more interested in the issue of women’s safety and access to a city’s infrastructure. I wanted to understand better the intersection between cities and gender so I started digging deeper to figure out why sexual harassment happens, how cities are designed, and how it affects peoples’ lives, particularly women. I have now been working on this issue for over 10 years. Q. Can you tell me more about the UN Women’s Global Safe Cities and Safe Public Spaces Programme? UN Women launched the Global Safe Cities and Safe Public Spaces Flagship Programme Initiative in November 2010 with five founding cities (Cairo, New Delhi, Quito, Kigali and Port Moresby) with the overall goal to prevent and respond to sexual violence against women and girls (SVAWG) in public spaces. At the time, there was limited experience on safe cities programming which limited the scale and scope for us, there were only a few evaluations available and there was lack of reliable and specific data on SVAWG in public spaces. In 2013- 2014 the initiative was scaled up to 15 cities, and today the Global Initiative spans nearly 40 cities in over 22 countries, with increased demand from cities across the world. Through a comprehensive strategy based on evidence, cities commit to reduce sexual harassment and other forms of violence against women in public spaces through the creation of data, partnerships, policies, investments and transformative change in social norms. We work directly with city authorities, grassroots women and youth, men’s groups and organizations, urban planners, research and educational institutions, private sector and other UN agencies to create safer spaces around streets in and around schools, public transportation, public toilets, markets and parks. Delhi was actually one of the founding cities as a part of this programme. It’s been a great learning journey for us and over the years, we have expanded to public spaces in rural and urban settings. Q. Having worked with so many cities, what is something interesting that you have learned? While working on the global initiative, I learned that all cities with strong leadership and commitment can create change. What has always fascinated me is that, once authority leaders, women rights organizations, youth organizations and the communities in general are engaged, they find solutions despite the challenges. It is very inspiring for me to see! For me, personally, it’s always really encouraging to see people, especially young girls and boys discussing and addressing the issue of sexual harassment in public spaces and women’s rights to the city and advocating for change. It is clear that each city must find a solution to the problem in their own reality. Q. What were the highlights and challenges of working in Papua New Guinea? Port Moresby is a unique city. It’s one of the biggest cities in the Pacific and very different from what I was used to. Being a part of this project was like learning from scratch for me. To be able to successfully do this project, I had to let go certain assumptions and improve my listening skills. Human relationships and trust is also very important to create close relationships, especially in societies like theirs and mine that have gone under colonialization. With kindness, the will to listen and similar societal challenges and opportunities, we were able to create a very good foundation for a strong partnership. I met people who were facing so many problems economically and socially, but they were so resilient, especially the youth, and it was such an amazing thing to see and work with. Throughout my profession, I have worked in transport and gender, and as a young woman of colour, it has been challenging to open doors and work in a male dominated sector. The male advocates from Papua New Guinea were unlike any I had met before, they were very keen advocates and were reliable. It was a real privilege to be a part of this project and work with so many incredible women and men. Q. How do you think the issue of women’s safety has evolved over the last decade? I would say there has definitely been a progress in the last 10 years. I remember 10 years ago, when I had just graduated, working on the issue of women’s safety, cities and gender was quite difficult. There were very few opportunities or investment and initiatives for these issue. However, in the last decade I have seen courageous women voicing their needs and more and more UN agencies, NGOs, government agencies, communities and private sector companies responding to these demands and investing in women’s safety initiatives. The progress on sexual harassment and women’s rights has received a lot of backlash lately and that to me means that a change is coming. Any change requires a balance of power and willingness to changing attitudes and this is not a simple process. The rate at which we’re going is not enough but I want to be optimistic. The #MeToo movement showed us the power of a global movement. It showed us that there are millions of women who have faced violence and they are not okay with staying silent anymore. I hope that our generation and the new generations to come will create more opportunities for cities and public spaces free of violence and not just let it pass. There has also been a lot of progress on how we understand our cities, public spaces and its differentiated impact on diverse populations. This has also opened up the opportunity to look at public spaces from the point of gender inclusion. Earlier, cities would not even acknowledge the different needs of their users according to age, sex, or economic access. New approaches, such as human centered design has gained importance and is giving us an opportunity to make places safer and more accessible for women and girls. Q. Which of the SDGs does the UN Women’s Programme address and how? One of the key challenges the global programme aims to address is the lack of reliable data on sexual harassment and other forms of sexual violence against women and girls (SVAWG) in public spaces and the evaluation of women’s safety strategies. Through the implementation of the global programme, cities have an opportunity to contribute to the SDG targets, in particular SDG 5 (target 5.2), and SDG 11 (target 11.7) and to share inspiring practices and lessons learned to create safe cities and safe public spaces for women and girls across the globe.